Yeast rewired to mate when starving

center_img Fungus found in humans shown to be nimble in mating game More information: Intercalation of a new tier of transcription regulation into an ancient circuit, Lauren N. Booth, et al., Nature 468, 959–963 (16 December 2010) doi:10.1038/nature09560 The researchers, led by Lauren N. Booth of the University of California, San Francisco, carried out a series of experiments on three species of yeast: the baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), dairy yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis) and human pathogen yeast (Candida albicans). All three species have three cell types: the haploids a and α, both of which carry a single set of chromosomes, and the product of their mating, the diploid a/α. They also produce haploid spores which are formed when the diploid divides.The a and α “sexes” mate by fusing together and combining the two sets of chromosomes to form the diploid cell type, which is externally virtually identical to the haploids. In this condition all the mating genes are suppressed and it no longer secretes mating factors, which are secreted constantly in the haploid cells.Each of the cell types has specific genes controlled by specific proteins. In the a cells the genes express a factor “MATa1,” and the equivalent in the α cells is MATα2. In the diploid the factors combine to form a complex a1/α2 and this blocks the expression of the four genes involved in mating and the genes specific to the a and α cell types. The new research has discovered that the dairy yeast has evolved a different form of regulation.In S. cerevisiae diploids the genes specific to the a and α cell types are regulated by the a1/α2 complex, which binds to the DNA near the genes it shuts down. Among the proteins expressed by the genes is an intermediate regulatory protein called RME1. In C. albicans the process is the same but RME1 is not present. In K. lactis RME1 is present and is shut down by the a1/α2 complex, but in this yeast RME1 is the only gene regulated by the complex, and it is RME1 that regulates the expression of the other genes.The differences in regulation of gene expression might have little effect since regulation of the genes in each case depends on the presence of the a1/α2 complex. RME1 is not just regulated by the complex, however, and is also regulated in response to levels of nutrients and is activated in starvation conditions. This means that in all three yeast species the “decision” to mate depends on there being haploids of the opposite type present and secreting the a or α mating factors, but in K. lactis the nutrient levels also have an influence, so that in starvation conditions mating is more likely. Mating is a necessary step in the production of spores, which can ensure the yeast’s survival in hard times.The researchers said a reorganization in a relatively recent ancestor K. lactis produced the indirect suppression of the mating genes by RME1. The overall logic of haploid specific genes active in the a and α cells and off in the diploid is preserved, but the “rewiring” integrated nutritional signals into the mating decision.The paper is published in the journal Nature.last_img read more

Researchers find suctioncupshaped circular bristles give male diving beetles a mating advantage

first_img Explore further The spatula setae, showing oval shallow suckers and parallel channels, from male protarsi of the diving beetle Cybister rugosus. Credit: Ying Chen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Citation: Researchers find suction-cup-shaped circular bristles give male diving beetles a mating advantage (2014, June 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Dorsal view of the spatula setae, showing stalks, oval shallow suckers and parallel channels, from male protarsi of the diving beetle Cybister rugosus. Credit: Ying Chen Parallel channels on the spatula setae from male protarsi of the diving beetle Cybister rugosus. Credit: Ying Chen ( —A team of researchers working in Taiwan has found that certain types of diving beetles have a mechanical advantage over other less evolved types of diving beetles. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team describes how they compared the suction-cup type bristle gripper mechanisms used by males of one type of beetle to latch onto females, with the less evolved spatula type gripper and found the former to be a much better approach than the latter. To mate, male diving beetles use specialized hairs or bristles on their bodies to latch onto a part of the forewing of the female. Latching on is important because the female moves around a lot, making copulation difficult. In this study, the research team looked to compare the latching abilities of four types of diving beetles—three that have what are described as suction-cup shaped bristles and a fourth which have what are believed to be older, less evolved spatula shaped bristles.Studying the gripping techniques of diving beetles helps researchers understand the complex mating behavior of the beetles—prior research has shown that the females appear to be evolving in a way that makes it more difficult for males to latch on, forcing the males to develop better mechanisms.To find out which type of mechanical mechanism is superior, the researchers clipped samples from both types of beetles and allowed both to latch onto glass cover slips in their lab. They then used a scale to measure vertical suction strength and sensors to measure shearing force. In so doing they found the two approaches yielded approximately the same suction force. When factoring for body size however, the suction-cup mechanism proved to be the superior gripper—it also proved to be better at resisting shearing forces, which likely is just as important, as the females tend to twist and turn at times during mating, possibly as a means of warding off weaker suitors. SEM image of the spatula setae, showing oval shallow suckers and parallel channels, from male protarsi of the diving beetle Cybister rugosus. Credit: Ying Chencenter_img Journal information: Journal of the Royal Society Interface The findings by the team suggest that the suction-cup type approach is an improvement over the older spatula type gripper and gives males an advantage during copulation. It also provides new ideas for engineers working on the development of underwater attachment devices. © 2014 More information: Paper: rsif.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rsif.2014.0273 Play Attachment-detachment process of a circular seta from male H. pacificus at a preload of 0.45 mN and pull-off velocity of 75 µm/s (~0.25 seta length per second, LST/s). This event was filmed laterally at 24 fps and played back at its original speed. Credit: © Ying Chen , Kai-Jung Chi Seed beetle ‘kicks’ sign of antagonistic coadaptation This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Family is all that they want

first_imgWhenever calamity strikes — be it natural or man-made — children are the first ones to suffer. But then again, it doesn’t take a calamity to make children traumatic, a broken family has just the same effect.  Advocating children’s right to family is something Butterflies has been doing for ages now. For years, they have been campaigning against the need to eliminate unnecessary institutionalisation of vulnerable children. The family has been recognised as the natural setting for all children by the proposed National Policy for Children 2012, in spite of such legislations and policies we regularly come across institutions set up under the garb of hostels and educational institutions who offer their services to children from poor or low income groups, depriving them of a family life. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ This was the focus of the Gerry Pinto Memorial Lecture Series — First Call for Children. This year, the lectures (held at the India International Centre on Wednesday) dealt with the issue of a child’s right to family. The lecture was chaired by Vasanti Rama of FORCES; Rajni Palriwal, Department of Sociology, Delhi University; Bino Thomas, Head of department, Social work, Christ University, Benguluru and Rita Panicker, Director of Butterflies. Palriwal delivered the key note address. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix Panicker opened the lecture and spoke of a child’s right to a family and how the two key institutions — family and school — have undergone a change in the last three decades with poverty pushing children to work, forcing many to even migrate. The relationship between poverty and forced institutionalisation though is not very linear, researches conducted by Butterflies have shown children across socio-cultural backgrounds have considered families to be a safety net and prefer living with families. Thomas validated what Panicker said. He said that parenting is no longer just common sense and it was now becoming more of a science and art. Interactions with children in his pre-clinical practice he was told by the children that they want to be parent friendly and parents told him that they would not want to pass on the wounds of their childhood to their children. Children are found to be carriers of family dysfunction and most often behaviour changes are needed with parenting and not with the children. Lack of time, inability to prioritise, generation and communication gap along with a lot of other practical difficulties are some of the reasons he listed as some issues which eventually leads into problem families. Palriwala spoke of extremely dysfunctional families, families with abject poverty, families with illness, neglect, abusive. The state also does not give necessary support to children in this age group and does not figure in any rights, education or health discourse.last_img read more

Get mesmerised by Raasrang

first_imgRaasrang Holi Utsav- the festival continues to enchant its eager audience by bringing to Delhi, Holi from different parts of India. This year the Raasrang Holi Utsav will bring together the Govt of Assam, Rajasthan and Bihar and celebrate the spirit of spring also popularly known as Basant and for the first time an international team from Bangladesh is also participating.In the previous six editions the festival was celebrated by prestigious ensembles showcasing Braj Ki Holi, Marwar ki Holi, Uttrakhand Ki Khadhi and Bhaithi Holi, Vrindavan ki Phoolan Ki Holi, Banares Ki Holi, Manipur Ki Yaoshang Holi among others. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival is in its seventh year now and will be marked by Rajasthan ki Holi which will celebrate the energy and colour of Braj ki lathmaar, phoolon ki Holi , Mayur dance and Raas-lila with an earthy desert flavor. Next in line is Barpeta ki Holi which features Devotional Holi geets expressing ecstatic devotion and the colourful beauty of nature accompanied by Dhulki (type of Drum) and taal (a cymbal).Bhojpuri Jhoomar combines melodious song and energetic dance to herald the festive season of Spring from Bihar and Basant Songs by Bangladeshi team- Nazrul geet, contemporary music and baul songs will be a part of this year celebrations. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixDETAILWhere: Dilli Haat, opposite INA, Sri Aurobindo MargWhen: 22 March – 24 MarchTiming: 5 pm onwardsTUCK IN AND CELEBRATE! Colour on your platter- On offer are some of the platters decked up in colours and named under the spirit of Holi. Food menu ranges for both vegetarians and non-vegetarians with platters like Desi Rangeen and Videshi Rangeen served along with a thandai.DETAILAt: Hinglish: The Colonial Cafe, Ground Floor, Pacific Mall, Subhash Nagar When: 22 March – 27 MarchTimings: 12 pm – 12 amPrice: Rs 750 (veg) and Rs 900 (non-veg)Naturally colourful- On offer would be a platter of colourful mini Idlis that are inspired by the colours of Holi such as orange (gunpowder), yellow (turmeric), green (coriander) and red (fiery guntur chilies). The colorful Idlis will be served with sambhar and chutney. All the ingredients add to the extra taste and will fit the wallet well.DETAILAt: All Vaango outletsWhen: 20 March- 27 MarchTimings: 11 am- 11 pmPrice: Rs 99 onwardsPARTY OUT LOUD AT RANG HOLI UTSAVRang 2013- Catch the best of electronic music experience this Holi and groove to both International and national tunes by multiple artists. To further enhance the experience, the festival offers extensive fun activities and attractions such as a rain dance, imaginative drinking games, mind blowing visuals and lots of color.From the International circuit artists like Dub FX, Ace Ventura, Liquid Soul and EMOK will play along with desi names like Reggae Rajahs, Audiogramme, S.O.N.R., Murti, V Society, Bass Pilots, Smash Nasty, Hamza, Arjun Gandhi who will mesmerise all with their music.DETAILWhere: Hotel Lilywhite, Chattapur When: 27 MarchTiming: 12pm -7 pm Price : Rs 2500 (all cover)last_img read more

Go bling

first_imgA three day long wedding extravaganza Wedding Asia 2013 at Hotel Ashok promises to get you prepared for the upcoming trends at weddings. It will be held between 19 to 21 July. Wedding Asia is not just a showcase exhibiting the finest from the world of the quintessential Indian wedding but also a platform to give impetus to the business of Fashion by addressing the fashion requirements of the fraternity to keep it at par with international standards. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’All the connoisseurs of luaury will get a chance to intermingle, network and buy the brands.  It has evolved to be the most sought after destination for wedding planning among its patrons, where a couple would have access to all the trends for the coming season and an opportunity to experience and interact with the leading brands from the arena of weddings, fashion & lifestyle. All leading players from the arena of lifestyle and weddings would come together to provide complete wedding solutions.last_img read more

Traditional shapes and the modern perspectives

first_imgCapturing the essence of minimalism and the poetic fluidity,of straight lined forms and ethereal shapes, potter Anju Kumar flagged off the festive season with the show Luminous Earth on 15 October. The focus is on sculptures which leave an impression on ones memory with their detailed cuts and folds. Vases, urns with detailed filigree and jaalis that look stunning as floor lamps are being displayed at the show. A series of Buddhas in various moods take the works to a realm where art and inspiration blur the boundaries of art. The collection also displays a series of tables, sculpted garden settes, pillars, mandirs and much more. Where: Studio Anmol, Gurgaon When: On till 21 Octoberlast_img read more

Every action has an equal and opposite reaction Shatrughan reminds BJP

first_imgRebel Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) MP Shatrughan Sinha, who has been at unease with the party leadership, on Tuesday virtually dared the party to take action against him.Reacting to reports that the party leadership was planning to take action against him after the Bihar assembly elections for his recent statements, seen as anti-party, the 69-year-old actor turned MP from Patna Sahib on Tuesday made a series of comments on the twitter.”After some unofficial news channel reports-and there’s nothing official about it – people are seeking my reactions on unconfirmed and unofficial report that BJP will take action after the Bihar elections. I will not comment on unofficial report spread by vested interests. However one shouldn’t forget Newton’s third law ‘Every action has an equal and opposite reaction’,” tweeted Sinha who is said to be miffed at being “sidelined” in the party and the government. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIA top party leader had on Tuesday hinted at action against Sinha. “We will deal with him after the counting of votes,” he had said, when reporters asked him about what the party planned to do with him in the wake of his recent comments.Sinha had recently praised Chief Minister of eastern Indian state of Bihar Nitish Kumar, who has come under severe attack from Prime Minister Narendra Modi, calling him a man of development. He had held a long meeting with Nitish on a day the Prime Minister had attacked the Bihar CM at a big public meeting in Bihar. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindHe had also asked the party to announce a chief ministerial candidate in Bihar, while on another occasion he suggested that Ram Vilas Paswan could be the NDA candidate for the top post.”I believe we should have announced our CM candidate. Not putting forward a candidate is a result of some confusion in our own camp,” he had tweeted on Monday. Sinha had said on Monday, “In my personal capacity and in the larger interest of BJP in general and NDA in particular, I strongly suggest the able, capable, acceptable, respectable and secular Ram Vilas Paswan as the potential/consensus CM candidate of Bihar from our side.”  He added, “The only desirable and advisable personality from our side who will be acceptable to all of us is Ram Vilas Paswan. The ultimate decision of course lies with the party and its parliamentary board.” Sinha had also created unease in BJP by meeting Delhi Chief Minister and Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) convener Arvind Kejriwal earlier this month.”Had a very pleasant and heart warming meeting with Sri. Arvind Kejriwal and family at their home,” he had said.In his praises for Nitish earlier, actor-turned-politician had said, “Being a product of healthy politics with JP, Atalji, Nanaji Deshmukh, Advaniji as my mentors, I avidly support clean politics.” He said, “Welcome our friend Nitish Kumar’s pledge not to field candidates with criminal background. Hope, wish and pray that others will follow.” In another tweet earlier, he had said, “Humbled and touched by Nitish ji’s glowing compliments in calling me the pride of Bihar. I am fond of him as a friend and a much-respected leader of the masses. Political opponents are not enemies. We can differ in political views but there can be no personal enmity.” Sinha’s name also cropped up in the controversy over his alleged signing of a petition to the President against the execution of Mumbai terror attack convict Yakub Memon, which Finance Minister Arun Jaitley lamented had “embarrassed” the party and which made him “extremely sad” that he had gone against the party line.Sinha, however, challenged the party that he never put his signatures on the petition and asked his friends in the party to verify the facts before sharing their “deep embarrassment” in public.”These reactions are only aimed at pulling each other down and send wrong messages to our detractors,” he had said.last_img read more

Perk Up Your Living Room

first_imgA well-heeled living room symbolises its owner’s personality; giving everyone an insight into their interests and passions through their taste of décor. Monika Kamal, well-renowned interior designer and founder of Siddharth by MKC, luxury brand into furnishings shares a few tips on how to perk up your living room.Curtains to the rescueThings like curtains and carpets are highly noticeable and influential. Curtains are not just for privacy and cooling; they enliven your living room, set the ambience and convey the story behind your home. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfCurtains alone can make the décor styling or fusion. Paints, Wallpapers and panelling don’t match the finishing touch and elegance brought on by curtains. Rags to RugsRugs and carpets are very impactful when it comes to tying your floor space together. Ditch the centuries old wall-to-wall carpet style and go for the trending area floor coverings.Pair the colour of your carpet and curtains and use the two together in a secondary colour as a foolproof way to unite and stimulate your living room. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveScented surroundingAdding a home fragrance to your living room adds a whole new sensory dimension. Home fragrances are a lot more than a simple finishing touch, they add an invisible layer of ambience that connects and transforms the composition. Elegant AdditionsMatch the colour of your home accessories with other pieces in the room to create a living masterpiece.last_img read more